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A little anxiety in a stressful situation is quite usual. You may have experienced it before appearing in an exam or interview. In contrast, individuals with anxiety disorder experience intense and persistent fear, which is disproportionate to the tense conditions. Further, fear in this instance is quite frequent and doesn’t go away with time.

These emotions generated consequently interfere with our daily activities. Sometimes, it may manifest as a panic attack and is almost disabling. Anxiety disorder can occur as Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), Specific phobias, or Social anxiety disorder.

Types of anxiety disorder

Anxiety disorder includes various conditions

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)

If you have GAD, you will experience excessive worry and fear most of the day for at least 6-7 months. This anxiety occurs in your daily activities and is, therefore, wholly irrational. The symptoms interfere with your daily chores.

Specific phobias

A phobia is the intense and irrational fear of some specific situation or thing. A person with a particular phobia will try to avoid that specific object or situation. Some phobias include:

  1. Agoraphobia –  It is the fear of open spaces.
  2. Claustrophobia – It is the fear of closed spaces.
  3. Animal phobia is fear of snakes, mice, lizards, spiders, dogs, etc.

Bodily phobia – Such as fear of blood, vomit, or injections.                                                          Social anxiety disorder

It is also known as social phobia, which is experiencing intense anxiousness in social situations. As a result, you will find it very difficult to speak in front of people. There will be a constant fear of getting embarrassed and humiliated. In extreme cases, it will be debilitating and prevent you from fulfilling normal social obligations.

Panic disorders

In this condition, you will frequently have episodes of panic and intense worry. The attack can occur at any time and without any reason. Physical assumptions such as a thumping heart, sweating, trembling, nausea, chest pain, or difficulty breathing will accompany. The magnitude of fear and symptoms rapidly rises and reaches a peak. One gets the feeling that they are almost dying.


Apart from the symptoms described above, there may be the following signs and symptoms.

  • Sense of restlessness.
  • Lack of concentration.
  • Sense Of impending doom.
  • Irritability.
  • Constant fatigue.
  • Insomnia or lack of sleep.
  • Trembling and sweating.
  • Fast breathing and heart rate.
  • Difficulty in controlling fear or worry.
  • Heart palpitations.
  • Constant effort to avoid situations/objects, causing anxiety.
  • Muscle pain and tension.

Risks and causes

Research has found that both genes and the environment are responsible for the development of the disorder. If your parents suffer from an anxiety disorder, you are more likely to suffer from it. Similarly, if you are in an anxiety-causing environment, your chances to suffer from it increase.

Various risk factors for all kinds of anxiety disorders include –

  1. The trait of being shy while being a child.
  2. Family history of mental illness.
  3. Exposure to traumatic conditions in childhood or early adulthood.
  4. Thyroid or heart problems or substances such as caffeine or some medications can trigger or worsen an anxiety disorder.


If you experience the above-stated symptoms, you must consult a general practitioner. A psychiatrist is a medicine specialist who can help you treat anxiety. In contrast, a psychologist has a bachelor’s degree in psychology and can administer psychotherapy. The diagnosis depends upon the medical history. They may also examine you physically for any disease that may be causing you anxiety. No specific lab tests can diagnose this disorder.

Treatment of Anxiety

Treatment for every patient varies from person to person. Commonly followed strategies are-


In the initial stages, when anxiety is minor, you may try some home remedies. In the case of severe anxiety disorder, these will not be so effective.

Relaxation methods: Several techniques, such as medication, yoga, and music therapy, can help us relax. Hence, they can control stress and anxiety.

Stress management: You should try to organize your work using SMART goals.

  • S – Specific.
  • M – Measurable.
  • A – Achievable.
  • R – Realistic.
  • T – Time-Bound.

Indeed, over a while, this will help you to cope with work-related stress.

Support group: Talk with a supportive family member or friend. They can help relieve stress and keep you relaxed.

Exercise: Physical exercise and morning/evening walks can keep your body and mind fresh. Hence, it will equip you to deal with stress better.

Positive Psychology: Above all, try to avoid negative thoughts. Emphasize the positive aspects and goodness of people. Positive thoughts will generate positive feelings and hence will make you stress-proof.


It is also called talk therapy. Psychotherapy must be tailor-made to each person’s needs. Cognitive behavior therapy is the most commonly given psychotherapy. In this therapy, a psychologist helps people to think, react, and behave differently to stressful and fear-producing situations or objects.

medication, yoga, music therapy can help us to control stress and anxiety.
Medication, yoga, and music therapy can help us to control stress and anxiety.

Medical therapy

It includes the administration of various medicines to treat anxiety symptoms. A psychiatrist prescribes these medications.

  1. Antidepressants: – These medicines, although used to treat depression, can also help to treat anxiety. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) have fewer side effects than previous-generation antidepressants. Some of the side effects are nausea, impotence, etc.
  2. Benzodiazepines: – These medicines may lead to addiction. Common side effects include drowsiness, sedation, and dependence.
  3. Tricyclic antidepressants: – These medicines may cause side effects such as dizziness, dry mouth, and drowsiness.


If you feel that you experience anxiety disproportionate to situations that you come across, you may try the following techniques to prevent it:-

  1. Have a healthy and balanced diet of green leafy vegetables, fruits, and cereals.
  2. Have a sound sleep of enough duration, which will rejuvenate you.
  3. Decrease intake of caffeinated drinks such as tea and coffee.
  4. Avoid drinking alcohol or the use of recreational drugs.
  5. Use techniques such as yoga and meditation to stay relaxed.
  1. What is anxiety? Anxiety is a natural response to stress or danger. It’s the body’s way of preparing to face a challenge. However, when it becomes excessive or persistent, it can interfere with daily life.
  2. How do I know if I have anxiety or just everyday stress? While stress is a normal part of life, anxiety tends to be more intense and prolonged. If you worry excessively, experience physical symptoms like a racing heart or muscle tension, and interfere with your daily activities, it might be anxiety.
  3. Can anxiety be cured? Anxiety is often a chronic condition, but it can be managed effectively with therapy, medication, or a combination of both. While a complete “cure” might not be possible, many people find significant relief with the proper treatment.
  4. Can lifestyle changes help with anxiety? Yes, lifestyle changes can make a big difference. Regular exercise, a balanced diet, adequate sleep, and stress .management techniques like mindfulness or meditation can help alleviate anxiety symptoms.
  5. Can anxiety be prevented? While it might not be entirely preventable, adopting healthy coping mechanisms, managing stress effectively, and seeking support can reduce the risk of developing chronic anxiety.
  1. National Institutes of Health
  2. NHS
  3. ADAA
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